Land- versus water-walking interventions in older adults: Effects on body composition

Louise H. Naylor, Barbara A. Maslen, K. L. Cox, Angela L. Spence, E. Robey, Andrew Haynes, Howard H. Carter, Nicola T. Lautenschlager, Nicola D. Ridgers, Carmela Pestell, Daniel J. Green

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Increasing physical activity is a priority worldwide, including for older adults who may have difficulty performing traditional forms of exercise, and for whom retention of muscle mass is an important consideration. Water-based exercise may provide an alternative if benefits are comparable. We compared the impact on body composition of 24-week water- versus land-walking interventions in healthy but inactive older adults.

DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial.

METHODS: 72 participants (62.5±6.8yr) were randomised to a land-walking (LW), water-walking (WW) or control (C) group in a supervised centre-based program. The exercise groups trained 3 times/week at matched intensity (%HRR), increasing from 40-45% to 55-65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip girths were recorded; dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided fat and lean tissue masses. Participants were re-assessed 24 weeks after completion of the intervention.

RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body mass or BMI following either exercise protocol, however central adiposity was reduced in both exercise groups, and the WW group increased lower limb lean mass. These benefits did not persist over the follow-up period.

CONCLUSIONS: Exercise can confer beneficial effects on body composition which are not evident when examining weight or BMI. Both WW and LW improved body composition. Water walking can be recommended as an exercise strategy for this age group due to its beneficial effects on body composition which are similar to, or exceed, those associated with land-walking. For benefits to persist, it appears that exercise needs to be maintained.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Science and Medicine in Sport
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Aug 2019

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Body Composition
Walking
Exercise
Water
Body Mass Index
Heart Rate
Weights and Measures
Photon Absorptiometry
Adiposity
Hip
Lower Extremity
Randomized Controlled Trials
Age Groups
Fats
Muscles
Control Groups

Cite this

@article{69c31f67e542403d8f5ee535cb4846ce,
title = "Land- versus water-walking interventions in older adults: Effects on body composition",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Increasing physical activity is a priority worldwide, including for older adults who may have difficulty performing traditional forms of exercise, and for whom retention of muscle mass is an important consideration. Water-based exercise may provide an alternative if benefits are comparable. We compared the impact on body composition of 24-week water- versus land-walking interventions in healthy but inactive older adults.DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial.METHODS: 72 participants (62.5±6.8yr) were randomised to a land-walking (LW), water-walking (WW) or control (C) group in a supervised centre-based program. The exercise groups trained 3 times/week at matched intensity ({\%}HRR), increasing from 40-45{\%} to 55-65{\%} heart rate reserve (HRR). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip girths were recorded; dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided fat and lean tissue masses. Participants were re-assessed 24 weeks after completion of the intervention.RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body mass or BMI following either exercise protocol, however central adiposity was reduced in both exercise groups, and the WW group increased lower limb lean mass. These benefits did not persist over the follow-up period.CONCLUSIONS: Exercise can confer beneficial effects on body composition which are not evident when examining weight or BMI. Both WW and LW improved body composition. Water walking can be recommended as an exercise strategy for this age group due to its beneficial effects on body composition which are similar to, or exceed, those associated with land-walking. For benefits to persist, it appears that exercise needs to be maintained.",
keywords = "Adiposity, Aquatic exercise, Body fat distribution, Exercise, Lean mass, Older adults",
author = "Naylor, {Louise H.} and Maslen, {Barbara A.} and Cox, {K. L.} and Spence, {Angela L.} and E. Robey and Andrew Haynes and Carter, {Howard H.} and Lautenschlager, {Nicola T.} and Ridgers, {Nicola D.} and Carmela Pestell and Green, {Daniel J.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "28",
doi = "10.1016/j.jsams.2019.08.019",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport",
issn = "1440-2440",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Land- versus water-walking interventions in older adults

T2 - Effects on body composition

AU - Naylor, Louise H.

AU - Maslen, Barbara A.

AU - Cox, K. L.

AU - Spence, Angela L.

AU - Robey, E.

AU - Haynes, Andrew

AU - Carter, Howard H.

AU - Lautenschlager, Nicola T.

AU - Ridgers, Nicola D.

AU - Pestell, Carmela

AU - Green, Daniel J.

PY - 2019/8/28

Y1 - 2019/8/28

N2 - OBJECTIVES: Increasing physical activity is a priority worldwide, including for older adults who may have difficulty performing traditional forms of exercise, and for whom retention of muscle mass is an important consideration. Water-based exercise may provide an alternative if benefits are comparable. We compared the impact on body composition of 24-week water- versus land-walking interventions in healthy but inactive older adults.DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial.METHODS: 72 participants (62.5±6.8yr) were randomised to a land-walking (LW), water-walking (WW) or control (C) group in a supervised centre-based program. The exercise groups trained 3 times/week at matched intensity (%HRR), increasing from 40-45% to 55-65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip girths were recorded; dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided fat and lean tissue masses. Participants were re-assessed 24 weeks after completion of the intervention.RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body mass or BMI following either exercise protocol, however central adiposity was reduced in both exercise groups, and the WW group increased lower limb lean mass. These benefits did not persist over the follow-up period.CONCLUSIONS: Exercise can confer beneficial effects on body composition which are not evident when examining weight or BMI. Both WW and LW improved body composition. Water walking can be recommended as an exercise strategy for this age group due to its beneficial effects on body composition which are similar to, or exceed, those associated with land-walking. For benefits to persist, it appears that exercise needs to be maintained.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Increasing physical activity is a priority worldwide, including for older adults who may have difficulty performing traditional forms of exercise, and for whom retention of muscle mass is an important consideration. Water-based exercise may provide an alternative if benefits are comparable. We compared the impact on body composition of 24-week water- versus land-walking interventions in healthy but inactive older adults.DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial.METHODS: 72 participants (62.5±6.8yr) were randomised to a land-walking (LW), water-walking (WW) or control (C) group in a supervised centre-based program. The exercise groups trained 3 times/week at matched intensity (%HRR), increasing from 40-45% to 55-65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and hip girths were recorded; dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) provided fat and lean tissue masses. Participants were re-assessed 24 weeks after completion of the intervention.RESULTS: There were no significant changes in body mass or BMI following either exercise protocol, however central adiposity was reduced in both exercise groups, and the WW group increased lower limb lean mass. These benefits did not persist over the follow-up period.CONCLUSIONS: Exercise can confer beneficial effects on body composition which are not evident when examining weight or BMI. Both WW and LW improved body composition. Water walking can be recommended as an exercise strategy for this age group due to its beneficial effects on body composition which are similar to, or exceed, those associated with land-walking. For benefits to persist, it appears that exercise needs to be maintained.

KW - Adiposity

KW - Aquatic exercise

KW - Body fat distribution

KW - Exercise

KW - Lean mass

KW - Older adults

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85071880931&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jsams.2019.08.019

DO - 10.1016/j.jsams.2019.08.019

M3 - Article

JO - Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

JF - Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

SN - 1440-2440

ER -