Objectives The major objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of labour room violence (LRV) (one of the forms of obstetric violence) faced by the women during the time of delivery in Uttar Pradesh (UP) (the largest populous state of India which is also considered to be a microcosm of India). Furthermore, this study also analyses the association between prevalence of obstetric violence and socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents. Design The study was longitudinal in design with the first visit to women made at the time of first trimester. The second visit was made at the time of second trimester and the last visit was made after the delivery. However, we have continuously tracked women over phone to keep record of developments and adverse consequences. Settings Urban and rural areas of UP, India. Participants Sample of 504 pregnant women was systematically selected from the Integrated Child Development Scheme Register of pregnant women. Outcome We aimed to assess the levels and determinants of LRV using data collected from 504 pregnant women in a longitudinal survey conducted in UP, India. The dataset comprised three waves of survey from the inception of pregnancy to childbirth and postnatal care. Logistic regression model has been used to assess the association between prevalence of LRV faced by the women at the time of delivery and their background characteristics. Result About 15.12% of women are facing LRV in UP, India. Results from logistic regression model (OR) show that LRV is higher among Muslim women (OR 1.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 4.3) relative to Hindu women (OR 1). The prevalence of LRV is higher among lower castes relative to general category, and is higher among those women who have no mass media exposure (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 12.8) compared with those who have (OR 1). Conclusion In comparison with global evidence, the level of LRV in India is high. Women from socially disadvantaged communities are facing higher LRV than their counterparts.