Leaf area index (LAI) and canopy chlorophyll density (CCD) are key biophysical and biochemical parameters utilized in winter wheat growth monitoring. In this study, we would like to exploit the advantages of three canonical types of spectral vegetation indices: Indices sensitive to LAI, indices sensitive to chlorophyll content, and indices suitable for both parameters. In addition, two methods for joint retrieval were proposed. The first method is to develop integration-based indices incorporating LAI-sensitive and CCD-sensitive indices. The second method is to create a transformed triangular vegetation index (TTVI2) based on the spectral and physiological characteristics of the parameters. PROSAIL, as a typical radiative transfer model embedded with physical laws, was used to build estimation models between the indices and the relevant parameters. Validation was conducted against a field-measured hyperspectral dataset for four distinct growth stages and pooled data. The results indicate that: (1) the performance of the integrated indices from the first method are various because of the component indices, (2) TTVI2 is an excellent predictor for joint retrieval, with the highest R2 values of 0.76 and 0.59, the RMSE of 0.93 m2/m2 and 104.66 ug/cm2, and the RRMSE (Relative RMSE) of 12.76% and 16.96% for LAI and CCD, respectively.