American sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne Steud.) is a weed widely distributed in wheat fields of China. In recent years, the evolution of herbicide (fenoxaprop-P-ethyl)-resistant populations has decreased the susceptibility of B. syzigachne. This study compared 4 B. syzigachne populations (3 resistant and 1 susceptible) using iTRAQ to characterize fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance in B. syzigachne at the proteomic level. Through searching the UniProt database, 3104 protein species were identified from 13,335 unique peptides. Approximately 2834 protein species were assigned to 23 functional classifications provided by the COG database. Among these, 2299 protein species were assigned to 125 predicted pathways. The resistant biotype contained 8 protein species that changed in abundance relative to the susceptible biotype; they were involved in photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. In contrast to previous studies comparing only 1 resistant and 1 susceptible population, our use of 3 fenoxaprop-resistant B. syzigachne populations with different genetic backgrounds minimized irrelevant differential expression and eliminated false positives. Therefore, we could more confidently link the differentially expressed proteins to herbicide resistance. Proteomic analysis demonstrated that fenoxaprop-P-ethyl resistance is associated with photosynthetic capacity, a connection that might be related to the target-site mutations in resistant B. syzigachne. This is the first large-scale proteomics study examining herbicide stress responses in different B. syzigachne biotypes. Biological significance: This study has biological relevance because it is the first to employ proteomic analysis for understanding the mechanisms underlying Beckmannia syzigachne herbicide resistance. The plant is a major weed in China and negatively affects crop yield, but has developed considerable resistance to the most common herbicide, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl. Through comparisons of resistant and sensitive biotypes, our study identified multiple proteins (involved in photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid biosynthesis) that are putatively linked to B. syzigachne herbicide response. This large-scale proteomics study, sorely lacking in weed science, contributes valuable data that can be applied to more fine-tuned analyses on the functions of specific proteins in herbicide resistance.