© 2016 British Society for Plant Pathology. Rubus anglocandicans is the most widespread and abundant blackberry species within the European blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) aggregate in Western Australia (WA). European blackberry is also one of the 32 Weeds of National Significance in Australia. A disease recorded as 'blackberry decline' was first observed in some blackberry sites in WA in 2006. A disease survey was conducted in the Manjimup-Pemberton region along the Warren and Donnelly River catchments in WA between 2010 and 2012. Phytophthora amnicola, P. bilorbang, P. cryptogea, P. inundata, P. litoralis, P. multivora, P. taxon personii, P. thermophila and a P. thermophila × amnicola hybrid were recovered from declining and adjacent decline-free sites, as well as from streams and rivers. Phytophthora cinnamomi was isolated from dying Banksia and Eucalyptus species from two non-decline sites. Of these species, P. bilorbang and P. cryptogea were more pathogenic than the others in under-bark inoculations using excised stems (primocanes), in planta primocane inoculations in blackberry growing wild in native forest stands, and in glasshouse pot trials. It was concluded that blackberry decline is a complex syndrome and Phytophthora species, in particular P. bilorbang and P. cryptogea, together with temporary inundation, are major biotic and abiotic factors contributing to blackberry decline.