Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed for population genetic analysis in the rare shrub Styphelia longissima (Ericaceae). Methods and Results: We generated ca. 2.5 million sequence reads using a Personal Genome Machine semiconductor sequencer. Using the QDD pipeline, we designed primers for >12,000 sequences with PCR product lengths of 80-480 bp. From these, 30 primer pairs were selected and screened using PCR; of these, 16 loci were found to be polymorphic, four loci were monomorphic, and 10 loci did not amplify reliably for S. longissima. For a sample of 57 plants from the only known population, the number of alleles observed for these 16 loci ranged from two to 21 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.49 to 0.91. These markers were also amplified in Astroloma xerophyllum, a closely related species. Conclusions: These markers will be used to characterize population genetic variation, spatial genetic structure, mating system parameters, and dispersal to aid in the management and conservation of the rare shrub S. longissima.