Isoenzymes of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI: E.C. 126.96.36.199) were used as markers to determine the origin of cells which give rise to new muscle formed in allografts of whole intact muscle. GPI isoenzymes were also employed to see whether host precursor cells, which have been shown to contribute to muscle formation in grafts of minced muscle, can be derived from muscle lying adjacent to grafts. Excellent muscle regeneration was found in allografts of extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle examined after 58 days: 12 of 16 grafts contained 80% or more new muscle. Isoenzyme analysis showed that most, and in 2 instances all, new muscle was derived from implanted donor cells; however, there was strong evidence that in 5 grafts some, or all, new muscle must have resulted from host cells moving into the graft. Although hybrid isoenzyme was not detected this was attributed to factors associated with host tolerance which appear to interfere with fusion between host and donor myoblasts. Isografts of minced muscle were placed next to whole EDL muscle allografts to see if cells from allografts moved into adjacent regenerating tissue. Unfortunately, muscle regeneration in minced isografts was poor; only 3 contained 50% or more new muscle and most contained large amounts of fibrous connective tissue. Only a single isoenzyme band was detected in 11 isografts, but in five instances, the presence of a second band showed that cells from EDL allografts were also present. As no hybrid isoenzyme was detected, it is not known whether these cells which had moved into the regenerating minced grafts were muscle precursors, fibroblasts or some other cell types.