Intrusion of Magmatic Bodies Into the Continental Crust: 3-D Numerical Models

Weronika Gorczyk, Katharina Vogt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in the Earth's continental crust. Yet the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study we present a series of numerical thermomechanical simulations on magma emplacement in 3-D. Our results demonstrate the response of the continental crust to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions, and injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favors host rock displacement and plutons at the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. Here the passage of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids from the intrusion through the fracture pattern may result in the formation of ore deposits. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle crust. Intrusion of low-density magma may more over result in T-shaped intrusions in cross section with magma sheets at the surface.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)705-723
Number of pages19
JournalTectonics
Volume37
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018

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intrusion
continental crust
Numerical models
crusts
Ponds
magma
Cones
Rocks
Ore deposits
Levees
Rheology
crust
pluton
Earth (planet)
funnels
brittle deformation
Fluids
Geometry
host rock
cones

Cite this

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abstract = "Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in the Earth's continental crust. Yet the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study we present a series of numerical thermomechanical simulations on magma emplacement in 3-D. Our results demonstrate the response of the continental crust to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions, and injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favors host rock displacement and plutons at the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. Here the passage of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids from the intrusion through the fracture pattern may result in the formation of ore deposits. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle crust. Intrusion of low-density magma may more over result in T-shaped intrusions in cross section with magma sheets at the surface.",
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Intrusion of Magmatic Bodies Into the Continental Crust : 3-D Numerical Models. / Gorczyk, Weronika; Vogt, Katharina.

In: Tectonics, Vol. 37, No. 3, 01.03.2018, p. 705-723.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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