Population growth and technological progress in the last 50 years have resulted in the global demand for mineral resources increasing by 400% since 1970, and it is further expected to almost double by 2050. This context forecasts a never-seen-before market for some specific mineral commodities, termed critical metals. The resource and supply flow of critical metals would be decisive for the economic well-being of economies in near future. Carbonatites are the most prospective host rocks for Rare Earth Elements (REEs), which constitute some of the most important critical elements. This special issue aims to contribute to the debate on understanding the genesis of carbonatites and their prospectivity for REEs (including exploration strategies), by presenting a wide variety of studies on carbonatites from around the globe.