Two species of vesicular arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal fungi were introduced into agricultural soils at four field sites. Three sites were chosen, on the basis of a previous survey, to give a range in the expected extent and rate of mycorrhizal formation by the indigenous fungi. The fourth site had recently been cleared of natural vegetation and ploughed. The success of inoculation with Glomus fasciculatum and G. monosporum was measured by estimating the extent of mycorrhizas formed by the inoculant fungi and by recording growth of subterranean clover. The effects of inoculating with these two mycorrhizal fungi on the development of mycorrhizas formed by the indigenous fungi were also followed in detail. At two sites, infection by G. fasciculatum was increased in the plots where this species was added in the inoculum. Growth was temporarily enhanced after inoculation with G. fasciculatum at one of these sites. This corresponded with a temporary increase in the percentage of root length infected as a result of inoculation. Plants grown at the two sites where G. fasciculatum became established had a slower rate of development of infection by the indigenous VA mycorrhizal fungi compared with that formed by the indigenous species at the other two sites.