Patellofemoral problems are relatively common sequelae of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and many factors contribute to these complications. Vascular compromise has been identified as a possible contributing factor, and was selected for further investigation in the present study. Laser Doppler Flowmetry was used to quantify patella intraosseous blood flow in vivo during TKA surgery without the use of a tourniquet. Flow was measured after medial parapatellar arthrotomy, and compared to flow during patella eversion and lateral retraction. Patella blood flow during eversion was reduced to 13% of baseline values (p<0.05). A significantly greater proportion of flow was preserved during lateral retraction (53%), although the reduction from baseline was still significant (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference in flow (60% of baseline) was also noted when the leg was flexed from full extension to 90 degrees (p<0.05) with the patella in its normal anatomical alignment. In this study, we have demonstrated the sensitivity of the patella blood supply to knee flexion angle and patella dislocation technique, particularly to patella eversion. These may be important findings with regard to surgical technique for TKA. Crown Copyright (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stoffel, K., Flivik, G. T., Yates, P., & Nicholls, R. (2007). Intraosseous blood flow of the everted or laterally-retracted patella during total knee arthroplasty. The Knee, 14(6), 434-438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2007.07.005