Interleukin-6 and Hepcidin Levels during Hormone-Deplete and Hormone-Replete Phases of an Oral Contraceptive Cycle: A Pilot Study

Marc Sim, Brian Dawson, Grant Landers, Dorine W. Swinkels, Erwin Wiegerinck, Bu B. Yeap, Debbie Trinder, Peter Peeling

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    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: In the past, elevated estradiol levels were reported to downregulate the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, thereby potentially improving iron metabolism. As estrogen plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and can influence the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6; a hepcidin up-regulator), this investigation examined the effects of estradiol supplementation achieved by the use of a monophasic oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on IL-6, hepcidin levels and iron status during the hormone-deplete versus hormone-replete phases within an oral contraceptive cycle (OCC). Methods: Fifteen healthy female OCP users were recruited and provided a venous blood sample on 2 separate mornings during a 28-day period. These included (a) days 2-4 of the OCC, representing a hormone-free withdrawal period (WD); (b) days 12-14 of the OCC, representing the end of the first week of active hormone therapy (AHT). Results: IL-6 and hepcidin levels were not significantly different at WD and AHT. Serum ferritin was significantly higher (p = 0.039) during AHT as compared to WD. Conclusions: Fluctuations in OCP hormones (estradiol and/or progestogen) had no effect on basal IL-6 and hepcidin levels in young women. Nevertheless, elevated ferritin levels recorded during AHT may indicate that OCP hormones can positively influence iron stores within an OCC despite unchanged hepcidin levels.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)100-105
    Number of pages6
    JournalAnnals of Nutrition and Metabolism: European journal of nutrition, metabolic diseases and dietetics
    Volume70
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Apr 2017

    Fingerprint

    Hepcidins
    Oral Contraceptives
    Interleukin-6
    Hormones
    Iron
    Estradiol
    Ferritins
    Female Contraceptive Agents
    Progestins
    Therapeutics
    Menstrual Cycle
    Estrogens
    Down-Regulation
    Cytokines

    Cite this

    @article{bf3023fa01044472ae0ce0a4a473334e,
    title = "Interleukin-6 and Hepcidin Levels during Hormone-Deplete and Hormone-Replete Phases of an Oral Contraceptive Cycle: A Pilot Study",
    abstract = "Background: In the past, elevated estradiol levels were reported to downregulate the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, thereby potentially improving iron metabolism. As estrogen plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and can influence the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6; a hepcidin up-regulator), this investigation examined the effects of estradiol supplementation achieved by the use of a monophasic oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on IL-6, hepcidin levels and iron status during the hormone-deplete versus hormone-replete phases within an oral contraceptive cycle (OCC). Methods: Fifteen healthy female OCP users were recruited and provided a venous blood sample on 2 separate mornings during a 28-day period. These included (a) days 2-4 of the OCC, representing a hormone-free withdrawal period (WD); (b) days 12-14 of the OCC, representing the end of the first week of active hormone therapy (AHT). Results: IL-6 and hepcidin levels were not significantly different at WD and AHT. Serum ferritin was significantly higher (p = 0.039) during AHT as compared to WD. Conclusions: Fluctuations in OCP hormones (estradiol and/or progestogen) had no effect on basal IL-6 and hepcidin levels in young women. Nevertheless, elevated ferritin levels recorded during AHT may indicate that OCP hormones can positively influence iron stores within an OCC despite unchanged hepcidin levels.",
    keywords = "Estrogen, Iron deficiency, Iron metabolism, Menstrual cycle, Progesterone",
    author = "Marc Sim and Brian Dawson and Grant Landers and Swinkels, {Dorine W.} and Erwin Wiegerinck and Yeap, {Bu B.} and Debbie Trinder and Peter Peeling",
    year = "2017",
    month = "4",
    doi = "10.1159/000465530",
    language = "English",
    volume = "70",
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    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Interleukin-6 and Hepcidin Levels during Hormone-Deplete and Hormone-Replete Phases of an Oral Contraceptive Cycle

    T2 - A Pilot Study

    AU - Sim, Marc

    AU - Dawson, Brian

    AU - Landers, Grant

    AU - Swinkels, Dorine W.

    AU - Wiegerinck, Erwin

    AU - Yeap, Bu B.

    AU - Trinder, Debbie

    AU - Peeling, Peter

    PY - 2017/4

    Y1 - 2017/4

    N2 - Background: In the past, elevated estradiol levels were reported to downregulate the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, thereby potentially improving iron metabolism. As estrogen plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and can influence the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6; a hepcidin up-regulator), this investigation examined the effects of estradiol supplementation achieved by the use of a monophasic oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on IL-6, hepcidin levels and iron status during the hormone-deplete versus hormone-replete phases within an oral contraceptive cycle (OCC). Methods: Fifteen healthy female OCP users were recruited and provided a venous blood sample on 2 separate mornings during a 28-day period. These included (a) days 2-4 of the OCC, representing a hormone-free withdrawal period (WD); (b) days 12-14 of the OCC, representing the end of the first week of active hormone therapy (AHT). Results: IL-6 and hepcidin levels were not significantly different at WD and AHT. Serum ferritin was significantly higher (p = 0.039) during AHT as compared to WD. Conclusions: Fluctuations in OCP hormones (estradiol and/or progestogen) had no effect on basal IL-6 and hepcidin levels in young women. Nevertheless, elevated ferritin levels recorded during AHT may indicate that OCP hormones can positively influence iron stores within an OCC despite unchanged hepcidin levels.

    AB - Background: In the past, elevated estradiol levels were reported to downregulate the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin, thereby potentially improving iron metabolism. As estrogen plays a role in regulating the menstrual cycle and can influence the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6; a hepcidin up-regulator), this investigation examined the effects of estradiol supplementation achieved by the use of a monophasic oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on IL-6, hepcidin levels and iron status during the hormone-deplete versus hormone-replete phases within an oral contraceptive cycle (OCC). Methods: Fifteen healthy female OCP users were recruited and provided a venous blood sample on 2 separate mornings during a 28-day period. These included (a) days 2-4 of the OCC, representing a hormone-free withdrawal period (WD); (b) days 12-14 of the OCC, representing the end of the first week of active hormone therapy (AHT). Results: IL-6 and hepcidin levels were not significantly different at WD and AHT. Serum ferritin was significantly higher (p = 0.039) during AHT as compared to WD. Conclusions: Fluctuations in OCP hormones (estradiol and/or progestogen) had no effect on basal IL-6 and hepcidin levels in young women. Nevertheless, elevated ferritin levels recorded during AHT may indicate that OCP hormones can positively influence iron stores within an OCC despite unchanged hepcidin levels.

    KW - Estrogen

    KW - Iron deficiency

    KW - Iron metabolism

    KW - Menstrual cycle

    KW - Progesterone

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    DO - 10.1159/000465530

    M3 - Article

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    SP - 100

    EP - 105

    JO - ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM

    JF - ANNALS OF NUTRITION AND METABOLISM

    SN - 0250-6807

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