The impact of a Mediterranean diet on the intestinal microbiome has been linked to its health benefits. We aim to evaluate the effects of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with dairy foods on the gut microbiome in Australians at risk of cardiovascular disease. In a randomised controlled cross-over study, 34 adults with a systolic blood pressure ≥120 mmHg and with risk factors for cardiovascular disease were randomly allocated to a Mediterranean diet with 3–4 daily serves of dairy foods (Australian recommended daily intake (RDI) of 1000–1300 mg per day (MedDairy)) or a low-fat (LFD) control diet. Between each 8-week diet, participants underwent an 8-week washout period. Microbiota characteristics of stool samples collected at the start and end of each diet period were determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. MedDairy-associated effects on bacterial relative abundance were correlated with clinical, anthropometric, and cognitive outcomes. No change in the overall faecal microbial structure or composition was observed with either diet (p > 0.05). The MedDairy diet was associated with changes in the relative abundance of several bacterial taxa, including an increase in Butyricicoccus and a decrease in Colinsella and Veillonella (p < 0.05). Increases in Butyricicoccus relative abundance over 8 weeks were inversely correlated with lower systolic blood pressure (r = −0.38, p = 0.026) and positively correlated with changes in fasting glucose levels (r = 0.39, p = 0.019), specifically for the MedDairy group. No significant associations were observed between the altered taxa and anthropometric or cognitive measures (p > 0.05). Compared to a low-fat control diet, the MedDairy diet resulted in changes in the abundance of specific gut bacteria, which were associated with clinical outcomes in adults at risk of CVD.