A large-plot field experiment was conducted at Keiser, AR, from fall of 2010 through fall of 2013 to understand to what extent soybean in-crop herbicide programs and postharvest fall management practices impact Palmer amaranth population density and seed production over three growing seasons. The effect of POST-only (glyphosate-only) or PRE followed by (fb) POST (glyphosate or glufosinate)+residual herbicide treatments were evaluated alone and in combination with postharvest management options of soybean residue spreading or soil incorporation, use of cover crops, windrowing with/without burning, and residue removal. Significant differences were observed between fall management practices on Palmer amaranth population density each fall. The use of cover crops and residue collection and removal fb the incorporation of crop residues into soil during the formation of beds were the most effective practices in reducing Palmer amaranth population. In contrast, the effects of fall management practices on Palmer amaranth seed production were inconsistent among years. The inclusion of a PRE herbicide application into the herbicide program significantly reduced Palmer amaranth population density and subsequent seed production each year when compared to the glyphosate-only program. Additionally, the glufosinate-containing residual program was superior to the glyphosate-containing residual program in reducing Palmer amaranth seed production. PRE fb POST herbicides resulted in significant decreases in the Palmer amaranth population density and seed production compared to POST application of glyphosate alone for all fall management practices, including the no-till practice. This study demonstrated that crop residue management such as chaff removal from the field, the use of cover crops, or seed incorporation during bed formation in combination with an effective PRE plus POST residual herbicide program is important for optimizing in-season management of Palmer amaranth and subsequently reducing the population density, which has a profound impact on lessening the risk for herbicide resistance and the consistency and effectiveness of future weed management efforts. Nomenclature: Glufosinate; glyphosate; Palmer amaranth, Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.; soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr.
Norsworthy, J. K., Korres, N. E., Walsh, M., & Powles, S. B. (2016). Integrating Herbicide Programs with Harvest Weed Seed Control and Other Fall Management Practices for the Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri). Weed Science, 64(3), 540-550. https://doi.org/10.1614/WS-D-15-00210.1