Insulin resistance and vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Mechanisms and therapeutic interventions

Doris T Chan, Gerald F Watts, Ashley B Irish, Gursharan K Dogra

    Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a novel cardiovascular risk factor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Beyond its metabolic effects, insulin can potentially mediate the increased risk for CVD through its vasoactive properties. This review examines key clinical data and potential mechanisms linking IR and cardiovascular risk in CKD. While lifestyle interventions and pharmacotherapies with known insulin-sensitizing properties are promising therapeutic targets to reduce the CVD burden in this population, clinical trial data on the effect of insulin sensitization on vascular function in CKD are either lacking or conflicting and are limited by small sample size and short duration of intervention. Affirming the role of IR in lowering CVD risk in CKD will require prospective randomized controlled studies with sufficient sample size and hard clinical outcomes. Future research efforts should be directed at assessing the efficacy, safety and mechanisms by which novel insulin sensitizers such as bile acid sequestrant, selective and dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulators and modulators of gut microbiota and uraemic toxins alter vascular function in patients with CKD.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1274–1281
    Number of pages8
    JournalNephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
    Volume32
    Issue number8
    Early online date15 Sep 2015
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Aug 2017

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