Diabetes mellitus is the most common and serious metabolic disorder among people all over the world. Many plants have successfully been used to overcome this problem. Cassia fistula, an ethnomedicnal plant, is widely used in Indian medicine to treat diabetes. Methanol extract of stem of plant, reduced the blood glucose levels in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Bioassay guided fractionation was followed to isolate Catechin from methanol extract. Catechin was administered to Streptozotocin (60 mg/kg b.w.)-induced diabetic male Wistar rats at different doses (5, 10, 20 mg/kg b.w.) for 6 weeks to assess its effect on fasting plasma glucose. The plasma glucose was significantly (p <0.05) reduced when compared to the control. Oral administration of Catechin (20 mg/kg b.w.) markedly increased tissue glycogen, and C-14-glucose oxidation without any change in plasma insulin and C-peptide. Catechin restored the altered Glucokinase, glucose-6 Phosphatase, Glycogen Synthase and Glycogen Phosphorylase levels to near normal. GLUT4 mRNA and protein expression were enhanced after Catechin treatment. The results of this experimental study indicated that Catechin possesses hypoglycemic, Glucose oxidizing and insulin mimetic activities and hence it could be used as a drug for treating diabetes. (C) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.