Insights into the Biology and Therapeutic Applications of Neural Stem Cells

Lachlan Harris, Oressia Zalucki, Michael Piper, Julian Ik-Tsen Heng

Research output: Contribution to journalLiterature review

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The cerebral cortex is essential for our higher cognitive functions and emotional reasoning. Arguably, this brain structure is the distinguishing feature of our species, and yet our remarkable cognitive capacity has seemingly come at a cost to the regenerative capacity of the human brain. Indeed, the capacity for regeneration and neurogenesis of the brains of vertebrates has declined over the course of evolution, from fish to rodents to primates. Nevertheless, recent evidence supporting the existence of neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult human brain raises new questions about the biological significance of adult neurogenesis in relation to ageing and the possibility that such endogenous sources of NSCs might provide therapeutic options for the treatment of brain injury and disease. Here, we highlight recent insights and perspectives on NSCs within both the developing and adult cerebral cortex. Our review of NSCs during development focuses upon the diversity and therapeutic potential of these cells for use in cellular transplantation and in the modeling of neurodevelopmental disorders. Finally, we describe the cellular and molecular characteristics of NSCs within the adult brain and strategies to harness the therapeutic potential of these cell populations in the treatment of brain injury and disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9745315
Pages (from-to)1-18
Number of pages18
JournalStem Cells International
Volume2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2016

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