Insights into the associations between the gut microbiome, its metabolites, and heart failure

Adilah F. Ahmad, Jose A. Caparrós-Martin, Nicola Gray, Samantha Lodge, Julien Wist, Silvia Lee, Fergal O'Gara, Amit Shah, Natalie C. Ward, Girish Dwivedi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Heart failure (HF) is the end stage of most cardiovascular diseases and remains a significant health problem globally. We aimed to assess whether patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% had alterations in both the gut microbiome profile and production of associated metabolites when compared with a healthy cohort. We also examined the associated inflammatory, metabolomic, and lipidomic profiles of patients with HF. This single center, observational study, recruited 73 patients with HF and 59 healthy volunteers. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and 6-mo follow-up, along with anthropometric and clinical data. When compared with healthy controls, patients with HF had reduced gut bacterial alpha diversity at follow-up (P = 0.004) but not at baseline. The stool microbiota of patients with HF was characterized by a depletion of operational taxonomic units representing commensal Clostridia at both baseline and follow-up. Patients with HF also had significantly elevated baseline plasma acetate (P = 0.007), plasma trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) (P = 0.003), serum soluble CD14 (sCD14; P = 0.005), and soluble CD163 (sCD163; P = 0.004) levels compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, patients with HF had a distinct metabolomic and lipidomic profile at baseline when compared with healthy controls. Differences in the composition of the gut microbiome and the levels of associated metabolites were observed in patients with HF when compared with a healthy cohort. This was also associated with an altered metabolomic and lipidomic profile. Our study identifies microorganisms and metabolites that could represent new therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools in the pathogenesis of HF.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found a reduction in gut bacterial alpha diversity in patients with heart failure (HF) and that the stool microbiota of patients with HF was characterized by depletion of operational taxonomic units representing commensal Clostridia at both baseline and follow-up. Patients with HF also had altered bacterial metabolites and increased inflammatory profiles compared with healthy controls. A distinct metabolomic and lipidomic profile was present in patients with HF at baseline when compared with healthy controls.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)H1325-H1336
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology
Volume325
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2023

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