Aphids can cause substantial damage to cereals, oilseeds and legumes through direct feeding and through the transmission of plant pathogenic viruses. Aphid-resistant varieties are only available for a limited number of crops. In Australia, growers often use prophylactic sprays to control aphids, but this strategy can lead to non-target effects and the development of insecticide resistance. Insecticide resistance is a problem in one aphid pest of Australian grains in Australia, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Molecular analyses of field-collected samples demonstrate that amplified E4 esterase resistance to organophosphate insecticides is widespread in Australian grains across Australia. Knockdown resistance to pyrethroids is less abundant, but has an increased frequency in areas with known frequent use of these insecticides. Modified acetylcholinesterase resistance to dimethyl carbamates, such as pirimicarb, has not been found in Australia, nor has resistance to imidacloprid. Australian grain growers should consider control options that are less likely to promote insecticide resistance, and have reduced impacts on natural enemies. Research is ongoing in Australia and overseas to provide new strategies for aphid management in the future.