Flowering time and seed size are the important traits for adaptation in chickpea. Early phenology (time of flowering, podding and maturity) enhance chickpea adaptation to short season environments. Along with a trait of consumer preference, seed size has also been considered as an important factor for subsequent plant growth parameters including germination, seedling vigour and seedling mass. Small seeded kabuli genotype ICC 16644 was crossed with four genotypes (JGK 2, KAK 2, KRIPA and ICC 17109) to study inheritance of flowering time and seed size. The relationships of phenology with seed size, grain yield and its component traits were studied. The study included parents, F1, F2 and F3 of four crosses. The segregation data of F2 indicated flowering time in chickpea was governed by two genes with duplicate recessive epistasis and lateness was dominant to earliness. Two genes were controlling 100-seed weight where small seed size was dominant over large seed size. Early phenology had significant negative or no association (ICC 16644 × ICC 17109) with 100-seed weight. Yield per plant had significant positive association with number of seeds per plant, number of pods per plant, biological yield per plant, 100-seed weight, harvest index and plant height and hence could be considered as factors for seed yield improvement. Phenology had no correlation with yield per se (seed yield per plant) in any of the crosses studied. Thus, present study shows that in certain genetic background it might be possible to breed early flowering genotypes with large seed size in chickpea and selection of early flowering genotypes may not essentially have a yield penalty.