Germination failed to occur in lupin seeds exposed to waterlogged soil, and survival was reduced to 0% after 4 days waterlogging. Coating seed with calcium peroxide (CaO2) increased germination and survival of lupin seeds for up to 4 days in waterlogged soils. This suggested that lack of O-2 may limit growth of lupin seeds in waterlogged soil. Germination and hypocotyl elongation were also significantly increased on moist filter paper in Petri dishes when seeds were coated with CaO2. Adding streptomycin alone did not increase germination or survival of lupins under waterlogged conditions. Results are consistent with other data using sterilised soil or hypoxic solution cultures, that limited O-2 supply is the primary factor limiting establishment of lupins in waterlogged soil.