A 3-year study evaluated the effect of different seed-priming techniques on the performance of two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, Seher-2006 and Shafaq-2006, planted in rows spaced at 22.5 or 30 cm. Three seed priming techniques-on-farm priming, hydropriming, and osmopriming (using CaCl2)-and an untreated control (dry seeds) were included in the study. Seed priming resulted in earlier and more uniform crop emergence and improved allometric and yield-related traits compared with untreated seeds. Hydropriming and osmopriming significantly improved the allometric traits of Seher-2006 planted at 22.5-cm row spacing and Shafaq-2006 planted at 30-cm row spacing each year. The combination of osmopriming and 30-cm row spacing produced the highest number of productive tillers, number of grains per spike and 1000-grain weight across all experimental years. The highest grain yield and harvest index were recorded for osmopriming and 22.5-cm row spacing each year. Shafaq-2006 produced higher biological yield, whereas Seher-2006 produced the higher grain yield and harvest index. Osmoprimed seeds planted at 22.5-cm row spacing recorded the highest economic returns and benefit: cost ratios in both cultivars. In conclusion, planting osmoprimed seeds of wheat in 22.5-cm spaced rows could be effectively used to increase productivity and economic returns.