Influence of prenatal environment and birth parameters on amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia

Gareth Lingham, David A. Mackey, Paul G. Sanfilippo, Jenny Mountain, Alex W. Hewitt, John P. Newnham, Seyhan Yazar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Citations (Web of Science)


Purpose: To report the prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia in a young adult population at a single center in Australia and to investigate the underlying prenatal and early-life risk factors. Methods: Participants in the Raine Study have been followed from mid-gestation (n = 2,868 newborns) to young adulthood. At age 20 years, 1,344 participants had a comprehensive eye examination, including visual acuity and a detailed orthoptic assessment. Risk factors were determined from medical records and questionnaires completed by the mothers at 18 weeks' gestation. The main outcome measures were the proportions of participants with amblyopia, esotropia, exotropia, or anisometropia (defined as >1 D difference). Results: Of the 1,125 white participants, 12 (1.1%) had amblyopia, 39 (3.5%) had strabismus, and 33 (2.9%) had anisometropia. In multivariable logistic regression, amblyopia was associated with a maternal history of pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR = 3.80; 95% CI, 1.19-12.13); esotropia, with lower gestational age (OR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.97) and a heavier placenta (OR = 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04); exotropia, with a maternal history of previously treated hypertension (OR = 4.00; 95% CI, 1.06-15.03) and maternal use of recreational drugs during early pregnancy (OR = 3.61; 95% CI, 1.06-15.03); and anisometropia, with older maternal age (OR = 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14) and an abnormal umbilical cord (OR = 2.39; 95% CI, 1.04-5.47). Conclusions: The prevalence of amblyopia, strabismus, and anisometropia in this cohort was similar to that in other studies. Preterm birth and maternal health may have adverse effects on eye development.[Formula presented]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74.e1-74.e7
JournalJournal of AAPOS
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


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