Background: Large epidemiological studies have demonstrated an early survival advantage with the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) compared to haemodialysis (HD). Chronic inflammation may contribute to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CVD) mortality in end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). We hypothesize that the initiation of HD in ESKD patients is associated with a greater inflammatory response compared with PD. Aims: To examine the effects of initiating HD and PD upon inflammation and CVD risk markers in ESKD patients. Methods: We performed a pilot prospective study on 75 predial-ysis CKD stage-5 subjects comparing the effects of HD and PD upon high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin(IL)-12, IL-18 and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Study visits were conducted 3 – 6 months before (baseline) and after (follow-up) initiation of dialysis. Results: Thirty-nine and 36 patients were initiated on HD and PD respectively. HD patients were older than PD patients (65.1 ± 2.1 vs 57.7 ± 2.7 years; p = 0.03) but had similar baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP), pulse pressure (PP), hsCRP, IL-12, IL-18, and PWV. At follow-up, HD patients had significantly increased hsCRP levels [5.2(3.7, 7.3) vs 1.7(1.0, 2.8)g/L; p < 0.001] compared to PD. Follow-up blood pressure, IL-12, IL-18, and PWV were similar between groups. A significant association remained between hsCRP and HD after adjustment for age, previous CVD, and residual urine output. Conclusion: The initiation of HD was associated with significantly increased hsCRP compared to PD. Further study is required to determine the plausibility of inflammation as a potential underlying contributor to the observed early mortality difference between dialysis modalities.