Increased Dose to Organs in Urinary Tract Associates With Measures of Genitourinary Toxicity in Pooled Voxel-Based Analysis of 3 Randomized Phase III Trials

Marco Marcello, James W. Denham, Angel Kennedy, Annette Haworth, Allison Steigler, Peter B. Greer, Lois C. Holloway, Jason A. Dowling, Michael G. Jameson, Dale Roach, David J. Joseph, Sarah L. Gulliford, David P. Dearnaley, Matthew R. Sydes, Emma Hall, Martin A. Ebert

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Dose information from organ sub-regions has been shown to be more predictive of genitourinary toxicity than whole organ dose volume histogram information. This study aimed to identify anatomically-localized regions where 3D dose is associated with genitourinary toxicities in healthy tissues throughout the pelvic anatomy. Methods and Materials: Dose distributions for up to 656 patients of the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 03.04 RADAR trial were deformably registered onto a single exemplar CT dataset. Voxel- based multiple comparison permutation dose difference testing, Cox regression modeling and LASSO feature selection were used to identify regions where 3D dose-increase was associated with late grade ≥ 2 genitourinary dysuria, incontinence and frequency, and late grade ≥ 1 haematuria. This was externally validated by registering dose distributions from the RT01 (up to n = 388) and CHHiP (up to n = 247) trials onto the same exemplar and repeating the voxel-based tests on each of these data sets. All three datasets were then combined, and the tests repeated. Results: Voxel-based Cox regression and multiple comparison permutation dose difference testing revealed regions where increased dose was correlated with genitourinary toxicity. Increased dose in the vicinity of the membranous and spongy urethra was associated with dysuria for all datasets. Haematuria was similarly correlated with increased dose at the membranous and spongy urethra, for the RADAR, CHHiP, and combined datasets. Some evidence was found for the association between incontinence and increased dose at the internal and external urethral sphincter for RADAR and the internal sphincter alone for the combined dataset. Incontinence was also strongly correlated with dose from posterior oblique beams. Patients with fields extending inferiorly and posteriorly to the CTV, adjacent to the membranous and spongy urethra, were found to experience increased frequency. Conclusions: Anatomically-localized dose-toxicity relationships were determined for late genitourinary symptoms in the urethra and urinary sphincters. Low-intermediate doses to the extraprostatic urethra were associated with risk of late dysuria and haematuria, while dose to the urinary sphincters was associated with incontinence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1174
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jul 2020


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