Incidence of Antithrombin Deficiency and Anti-Cardiolipin Antibodies After Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Prospective Cohort Study

Shankar Kalgudi, Kwok M. Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Animal studies suggested that cerebral mitochondrial cardiolipin phospholipids were released after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), contributing to the pathogenesis of thromboembolism. Objectives: To determine the incidence of anti-cardiolipin antibodies after severe TBI and whether this was related to the severity of TBI and development of venous thromboembolism. Methods: Serial anti-cardiolipin antibodies, antithrombin levels, viscoelastic testing, and coagulation parameters were measured on admission, day-1, and between day-5 and day-7 in patients with severe TBI requiring intracranial pressure monitoring. Results: Of the 40 patients included (85% male and median age 42 years), 7 (18%) had a raised Ig-G or Ig-M anti-cardiolipin antibody titer after TBI. Antithrombin levels were below the normal level—especially on day-0 and day-1—in 15 patients (38%), and 14 patients (38%) developed an increase in maximum clot firmness on the viscoelastic test in conjunction with elevations in fibrinogen concentration and platelet count. Four patients (10%) developed deep vein thrombosis, and 10 patients (25%) died, both of which were not significantly related to the presence of anti-cardiolipin antibodies (P = 0.619 and P = 0.638, respectively). Conclusions: A reduction in antithrombin level and development of anti-cardiolipin antibodies were not rare immediately after severe TBI; these abnormalities were followed by an increase in in vitro clot strength due to elevations in fibrinogen concentration and platelet count. The quantitative relationships between the development of anti-cardiolipin antibodies and severity of TBI or clinical thromboembolic events deserve further investigation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)227-235
Number of pages9
JournalNeurocritical Care
Volume34
Issue number1
Early online date18 Jun 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

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