Incidence, Clinical Correlates, and Prognostic Impact of Dementia in Heart Failure: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Qing wen Ren, Tiew Hwa Katherine Teng, Yi Kei Tse, Wan Ting Tay, Hang Long Li, Jasper Tromp, Si Yeung Yu, Denise Hung, Mei Zhen Wu, Christopher Chen, Jacqueline Kwan Yuk Yuen, Jia Yi Huang, Wouter Ouwerkerk, Xin Li Li, Kanako Teramoto, Chanchal Chandramouli, Hung Fat Tse, Carolyn S.P. Lam, Kai Hang Yiu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Heart failure (HF) may increase the risk of dementia via shared risk factors. Objectives: The authors investigated the incidence, types, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of dementia in a population-based cohort of patients with index HF. Methods: The previously territory-wide database was interrogated to identify eligible patients with HF (N = 202,121) from 1995 to 2018. Clinical correlates of incident dementia and their associations with all-cause mortality were assessed using multivariable Cox/competing risk regression models where appropriate. Results: Among a total cohort aged ≥18 years with HF (mean age 75.3 ± 13.0 years, 51.3% women, median follow-up 4.1 [IQR: 1.2-10.2] years), new-onset dementia occurred in 22,145 (11.0%), with age-standardized incidence rate of 1,297 (95% CI: 1,276-1,318) per 10,000 in women and 744 (723-765) per 10,000 in men. Types of dementia were Alzheimer's disease (26.8%), vascular dementia (18.1%), and unspecified dementia (55.1%). Independent predictors of dementia included: older age (≥75 years, subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR]: 2.22), female sex (SHR: 1.31), Parkinson's disease (SHR: 1.28), peripheral vascular disease (SHR: 1.46), stroke (SHR: 1.24), anemia (SHR: 1.11), and hypertension (SHR: 1.21). The population attributable risk was highest for age ≥75 years (17.4%) and female sex (10.2%). New-onset dementia was independently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted SHR: 4.51; P < 0.001). Conclusions: New-onset dementia affected more than 1 in 10 patients with index HF over the follow-up, and portended a worse prognosis in these patients. Older women were at highest risk and should be targeted for screening and preventive strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)108-119
Number of pages12
JournalJACC: Asia
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


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