In vitro modeling of the prostate cancer microenvironment

Stuart J. Ellem, Elena M. De-Juan-Pardo, Gail P. Risbridger

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and advanced disease is incurable. Model systems are a fundamental tool for research and many in vitro models of prostate cancer use cancer cell lines in monoculture. Although these have yielded significant insight they are inherently limited by virtue of their two-dimensional (2D) growth and inability to include the influence of tumour microenvironment. These major limitations can be overcome with the development of newer systems that more faithfully recreate and mimic the complex in vivo multi-cellular, three-dimensional (3D) microenvironment. This article presents the current state of in vitro models for prostate cancer, with particular emphasis on 3D systems and the challenges that remain before their potential to advance our understanding of prostate disease and aid in the development and testing of new therapeutic agents can be realised.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-221
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


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