Context and objective: Prostate, colorectal and lung cancers are common in men. In this study, we aimed to determine whether vitamin D status is associated with the incidence of these cancers in older men. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants: 4208 older men aged 70-88 years in Perth, Western Australia Main outcome measures: Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration was measured by immunoassay. New diagnoses of prostate, colorectal and lung cancers were determined via electronic record linkage. Results: During a mean follow-up of 6.7±1.8 years, there were 315, 117 and 101 new diagnoses of prostate, colorectal and lung cancer. In multivariate competing risks proportional hazards models, every 10 nmol/l decrease in 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 4% reduction in prostate cancer incidence (sub-hazard ratio [SHR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-1.00). Every halving of 25(OH)D concentration was associated with a 21% reduction in incident prostate cancer in multivariate analysis (SHR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63-0.99). Following exclusion of prostate cancer cases diagnosed within 3 years of blood sampling, low 25(OH)D75 nmol/l was associated with higher incidence, when compared to the reference range 50-75 nmol/l, respectively (p = 0.027). Significant associations were also observed when 25(OH)D was modeled as a quantitative variable. No associations were observed between plasma 25(OH)D concentration with incidence of colorectal or lung cancer. Conclusion: Lower levels of vitamin D may reduce prostate cancer risk in older men. By contrast, levels of vitamin D did not predict incidence of colorectal or lung cancers. Further studies are needed to determine whether a causal relationship exists between vitamin D and prostate cancer in ageing men. © 2014 Wong et al.