Objective: Dysphagia, one of the most common complications in head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiotherapy, can severely affect patients' quality of life. Currently, because no "gold standard" treatment exists, swallowing exercise remains the main rehabilitation strategy for dysphagia. However, patients' compliance with long-term swallowing exercise is only 40%, thus, greatly compromising outcomes. This article aims to analyze thefactors influencing swallowing exercise compliance in patients with HNC and explains strategies developed to date for improved rehabilitation outcomes.Methods: Research studies published between 2005 and 2022 were retrieved from seven databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CINAHL, CNKI, Wan Fang Database, and VIP Database, and 21 articles were shortlisted and systematically reviewed.Results: The swallowing exercise compliance in patients with HNC undergoing radiotherapy was affected by multiple factors, including socio-demographic factors, illness-associated factors, treatment-associated factors, and psychosocial factors. Regarding the interventions, current strategies mainly address psychosocial issues via developing various education programs.Conclusions: Different factors influencing swallowing exercise compliance are important and should be observed. Measures including developing multidisciplinary teams, applying innovative equipment, refining the intervention procedure, and applying systematic theory frameworks should be performed to achieve better outcomes of compliance interventions.