Improved upper limits on the stochastic gravitational-wave background from 2009-2010 LIGO and Virgo data

J. Aasi, B.P. Abbott, R.S. Abbott, T.D. Abbott, M.R. Abernathy, T. Accadia, F. Acernese, K. Ackley, C.A. Adams, T. Adams, P. Addesso, R.X. Adhikari, C. Affeldt, M. Agathos, N. Aggarwal, O.D. Aguiar, A. Ain, P.M. Ajith, A. Alemic, B. AllenA. Allocca, D. Amariutei, M.F. Andersen, R.A. Anderson, S.B. Anderson, W.G. Anderson, K. Arai, M.C. Araya, C. Arceneaux, J.S. Areeda, S.M. Aston, P. Astone, P. Aufmuth, C. Aulbert, L. Austin, B.E. Aylott, S.V. Babak, P.T. Baker, G. Ballardin, S.W. Ballmer, J.C.B. Barayoga, M. Barbet, B.C. Barish, D. Barker, F.R. Barone, B.W. Barr, L. Barsotti, M. Barsuglia, M.A. Barton, I. Bartos, R. Bassiri, A. Basti, J.C. Batch, J. Bauchrowitz, T.S. Bauer, B. Behnke, M. Bejger, M.G. Beker, C. Belczynski, A.S. Bell, C.J. Bell, G. Bergmann, D. Bersanetti, A. Bertolini, J.C. Betzwieser, P.T. Beyersdorf, I.A. Bilenko, G.L. Billingsley, J. Birch, S. Biscans, M. Bitossi, M.A. Bizouard, E.D. Black, J.K. Blackburn, L. Blackburn, David Blair, S. Bloemen, M.R. Blom, O. Bock, T.P. Bodiya, M. Boer, G. Bogaert, C. Bogan, C. Bond, F. Bondu, L. Bonelli, R. Bonnand, R. Bork, M. Born, V. Boschi, S.B. Böse, L.B. Bosi, C. Bradaschia, P.R. Brady, V.B. Braginsky, M. Branchesi, J.E. Brau, T. Briant, D.O. Bridges, A. Brillet, M. Brinkmann, V. Brisson, A.F. Brooks, D.A. Brown, D.D.E. Brown, F. Brückner, S. Buchman, T. Bulik, H.J. Bülten, A. Buonanno, Ron Burman, D. Buskulic, C. Buy, L. Cadonati, G. Cagnoli, J.C. Bustillo, E. Calloni, J.B. Camp, P. Campsie, K.C. Cannon, B. Canuel, J. Cao, C.D. Capano, F. Carbognani, L. Carbone, S. Caride, A.D. Castiglia, S.E. Caudill, M. Cavaglià, F. Cavalier, R. Cavalieri, C. Celerier, G.C. Cella, C. Cepeda, E. Cesarini, R. Chakraborty, T. Chalermsongsak, S.J. Chamberlin, S. Chao, P.R. Charlton, E. Chassande-Mottin, Xu Chen, Y. Chen, A. Chincarini, A. Chiummo, H.S. Cho, J.H. Chow, N.L. Christensen, Qi Chu, S.S.Y. Chua, Shin Kee Chung, G.S. Ciani, F. Clara, J.A. Clark, F. Cleva, E. Coccia, P.F. Cohadon, A. Colla, C. Collette, M. Colombini, L.R. Cominsky, M. Constancio, A. Conte, D. Cook, T.R.C. Corbitt, M. Cordier, N.J. Cornish, A. Corpuz, A. Corsi, C.A. Costa, M.W. Coughlin, S. Coughlin, J.P. Coulon, S. Countryman, P. Couvares, David Coward, M.J. Cowart, D.C. Coyne, R. Coyne, K.K. Craig, J.D.E. Creighton, S.G. Crowder, A.V. Cumming, L. Cunningham, E. Cuoco, K. Dahl, T.D. Canton, M. Damjanic, Stefan Danilishin, S. D'Antonio, K.V. Danzmann, V. Dattilo, H.P. Daveloza, M. Davier, G.S. Davies, E.J. Daw, R. Day, T. Dayanga, G. Debreczeni, J. Degallaix, S. Deléglise, W. Del Pozzo, T. Denker, T. Dent, H. Dereli, V.A. Dergachev, R.D. De Rosa, R.T. Derosa, R. Desalvo, S.V. Dhurandhar, M.A. Díaz, L.D. Di Fiore, A.D. Di Lieto, I. Di Palma, A.D. Di Virgilio, A. Donath, F. Donovan, K.L. Dooley, S. Doravari, S. Dossa, R. Douglas, T.P. Downes, M. Drago, R.W.P. Drever, J.C. Driggers, Z. Du, S. Dwyer, T. Eberle, T. Edo, M.F. Edwards, A. Effler, H.B. Eggenstein, P. Ehrens, J. Eichholz, S.S. Eikenberry, G. Endröczi, R. Essick, T. Etzel, M.H. Evans, T. Evans, M. Factourovich, V. Fafone, S. Fairhurst, Qi Fang, S. Farinon, B.F. Farr, W.M. Farr, M. Favata, H. Fehrmann, M.M. Fejer, D. Feldbaum, F. Feroz, I. Ferrante, F. Ferrini, F. Fidecaro, L.S. Finn, I. Fiori, R.P. Fisher, R.R. Flaminio, J.D. Fournier, S. Franco, S. Frasca, F. Frasconi, M. Frede, Z. Frei, A. Freise, R.E. Frey, T.T. Fricke, P.K. Fritschel, V.V. Frolov, P.J. Fulda, M. Fyffe, J.R. Gair, L. Gammaitoni, S. Gaonkar, F.S. Garufi, N.A. Gehrels, G. Gemme, E. Genin, A. Gennai, S. Ghosh, J.A. Giaime, K.D. Giardina, A. Giazotto, C.D. Gill, J. Gleason, E. Goetz, R. Goetz, L. Gondán, G.I. González, N.A. Gordon, M.L. Gorodetsky, S. Gossan, S. Goßler, R. Gouaty, C.P. Gräf, P.B. Graff, M. Granata, A.I. Grant, S. Gras, C. Gray, R.J.S. Greenhalgh, A.M. Gretarsson, P.J. Groot, H. Grote, K.D. Grover, S. Grunewald, G.M. Guidi, C.J. Guido, K.E. Gushwa, E.K. Gustafson, R. Gustafson, D. Hammer, G.D. Hammond, M. Hanke, J.A. Hanks, C. Hanna, J. Hanson, J. Harms, G.M. Harry, I.W. Harry, E.D. Harstad, M.V. Hart, M. Hartman, C.J. Haster, K. Haughian, A. Heidmann, M.C. Heintze, H.H. Heitmann, P. Hello, G. Hemming, M.A. Hendry, I. Heng, A.W. Heptonstall, M. Heurs, M.R. Hewitson, S. Hild, D. Hoak, K.A. Hodge, K. Holt, S. Hooper, P. Hopkins, D.J. Hosken, J.H. Hough, Eric Howell, Y. Hu, E.A. Huerta, B.J. Hughey, S. Husa, S.H. Huttner, M. Huynh, T. Huynh-Dinh, D.R. Ingram, R. Inta, T. Isogai, A. Ivanov, B.R. Iyer, K. Izumi, M. Jacobson, E.B. James, H. Jang, P. Jaranowski, Y. Ji, F. Jiménez-Forteza, W.W. Johnson, D.I. Jones, R.W.L. Jones, R.J.G. Jonker, Li Ju, P.I.P. Kalmus, V. Kalogera, S. Kandhasamy, G. Kang, J.B. Kanner, J. Karlen, M. Kasprzack, E. Katsavounidis, W. Katzman, H. Kaufer, K. Kawabe, F. Kawazoe, F. Kéfélian, G.M. Keiser, D. Keitel, D.B. Kelley, W.P. Kells, A. Khalaidovski, F.Y.A. Khalili, E.A. Khazanov, C. Kim, K. Kim, N. Kim, N.G. Kim, Y. Kim, E.J. King, P.J. King, D.L. Kinzel, J.S. Kissel, S. Klimenko, J.L. Kline, S. Koehlenbeck, K. Kokeyama, V.S. Kondrashov, S. Koranda, W.Z. Korth, I.M. Kowalska, D.B. Kozak, A. Kremin, V. Kringel, A. Królak, G. Kuehn, A.V.R. Kumar, P. Kumar, R. Kumar, L. Kuo, A. Kutynia, P. Kwee, M.R. Landry, B.T. Lantz, S.L. Larson, P.D. Lasky, C. Lawrie, A. Lazzarini, C. Lazzaro, P. Leaci, S.S. Leavey, E.O. Lebigot, C.H. Lee, H.K. Lee, H. Lee, J. Lee, M. Leonardi, J.R. Leong, A. Le Roux, N. Leroy, N. Letendre, Y.I. Levin, B.M. Levine, J.D. Lewis, T.G.F. Li, K.G. Libbrecht, A. Libson, A.C. Lin, T.B. Littenberg, V. Litvine, N.A. Lockerbie, V. Lockett, D. Lodhia, K. Loew, J. Logue, A.L. Lombardi, M. Lorenzini, V. Loriette, M. Lormand, G. Losurdo, J. Lough, M.J. Lubinski, H. Lück, E. Luijten, A.P. Lundgren, R.S. Lynch, Yiqiu Ma, J.L. Macarthur, E.P. Macdonald, T. Macdonald, B. Machenschalk, M. Macinnis, D.M. Macleod, F. Magaña-Sandoval, M. Mageswaran, C. Maglione, K. Mailand, E. Majorana, I. Maksimovic, V. Malvezzi, N. Man, G.M. Manca, I. Mandel, V. Mandic, V.D. Mangano, N.M. Mangini, M. Mantovani, F. Marchesoni, F. Marion, S. Márka, Z. Márka, A.S. Markosyan, E. Maros, J.P. Marque, F. Martelli, I.W. Martin, R.M. Martin, L. Martinelli, D. Martynov, J.N. Marx, K. Mason, A. Masserot, T.J. Massinger, F. Matichard, L. Matone, R.A. Matzner, N. Mavalvala, N. Mazumder, G. Mazzolo, R.L. Mccarthy, D.E. Mcclelland, S.C. Mcguire, G.T. Mcintyre, J. Mciver, K.M. Mclin, D. Meacher, G.D. Meadors, M. Mehmet, J. Meidam, M. Meinders, A. Melatos, G. Mendell, R.A. Mercer, S. Meshkov, C.J. Messenger, P.M. Meyers, H. Miao, C. Michel, E.E. Mikhailov, L. Milano, S. Milde, J.M.C.L. Miller, Y.F. Minenkov, C.M.F. Mingarelli, C.S. Mishra, S.K. Mitra, V.P. Mitrofanov, G.V. Mitselmakher, R. Mittleman, B. Moe, P. Moesta, M.N. Mohan, S.R.P. Mohapatra, D. Moraru, G. Moreno, N. Morgado, S.R. Morriss, K. Mossavi, B. Mours, C.M. Mow-Lowry, C.L. Mueller, G. Mueller, S. Mukherjee, A.J. Mullavey, J. Munch, D.C. Murphy, P.G. Murray, A. Mytidis, M.F. Nagy, D.N. Kumar, I. Nardecchia, L. 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    Abstract

    © 2014 American Physical Society. Gravitational waves from a variety of sources are predicted to superpose to create a stochastic background. This background is expected to contain unique information from throughout the history of the Universe that is unavailable through standard electromagnetic observations, making its study of fundamental importance to understanding the evolution of the Universe. We carry out a search for the stochastic background with the latest data from the LIGO and Virgo detectors. Consistent with predictions from most stochastic gravitational-wave background models, the data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. Assuming a gravitational-wave spectrum of ΩGW(f)=Ωα(f/fref)α, we place 95% confidence level upper limits on the energy density of the background in each of four frequency bands spanning 41.5-1726 Hz. In the frequency band of 41.5-169.25 Hz for a spectral index of α=0, we constrain the energy density of the stochastic background to be ΩGW(f)
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)231101
    JournalPhysical Review Letters
    Volume113
    Issue number23
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2014

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