This research aimed to provide an original and substantial contribution concerning the impacts of gold mining on sustainable development in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Results indicate that mining has been a driver of socio-economic wellbeing at the national level, but the outcomes at the provincial level are unclear. Second, local people's perceptions are concerned with mining impacts to the standard of livelihoods, health and quality of life. In comparison with non-mining regions, mining communes have obtained some benefits, but environmental degradation was pronounced. Finally, findings indicated that mining regulations need to be further reformed because many weaknesses still exist.