Impact of walnut consumption on cardio metabolic and anthropometric parameters in metabolic syndrome patients: GRADE-assessed systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of data from randomized controlled trials

Seyyed Mostafa Arabi, Leila Sadat Bahrami, Narges Milkarizi, Mohsen Nematy, Vladislav Kalmykov, Amirhossein Sahebkar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: In recent years, the effect of walnut consumption on various components of metabolic syndrome (Mets) in different populations has been investigated. However, the findings on the alterations of cardiometabolic and anthropometric indices following walnut consumption in adults with Mets have not been fully conclusive. Methods: The current study of eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examined the effects of walnut consumption on glucose homeostasis factors (fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c)), lipid profile (triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c)), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations and anthropometric indices (body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC)) in trials of 549 participants. A systematic search was conducted in online databases including MEDLINE, Scopus, and Clarivate Analytics Web of Science uses related keywords to detect eligible studies until December 2021. To calculate the weighted mean difference (WMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), a random-effects model was used. Results: Results from the pooled analysis showed that serum TG concentration was significantly reduced (WMD, − 0.1 mmol/L; 95%CI (− 0.3 to − 0.02); p = 0.02; I2 = 38.6%; p = 0.10), although other lipid profile components (TC, LDL-c, and HDL-c), glucose homeostasis markers (FPG, insulin, and HbA1c), hs-CRP levels, anthropometric indices (BW, BMI, and WC) and blood pressure (SBP and DBP) were not influenced by walnut consumption. A significant dose-response association was detected between the dose of walnut intake and serum concentrations of FPG (Pnon-linearity < 0.03, Pdose-response < 0.001) and HDL-c (Pnon-linearity = 0.01, Pdose-response = 0.006). Conclusions: Walnut consumption reduces serum TG levels in individuals with metabolic syndrome, but it cannot affect other cardiometabolic indices. Future well-designed and large RCTs are required to clarify further beneficial effects of walnut consumption on the cardiometabolic profile.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106190
JournalPharmacological Research
Volume178
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022

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