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Health-related behaviours contribute to the global burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Cardiovascular imaging can be used to screen asymptomatic individuals for increased risk of CVD to enable earlier interventions to promote health-related behaviours to prevent or reduce CVD risk. Some theories of behaviour and behaviour change assume that engagement in a given behaviour is a function of individual threat appraisals, beliefs regarding the performance of behaviour, self-efficacy for performing the desired behaviour and/or dispositions to act (e.g. behavioural intentions). To date, little is known about the impact of cardiovascular imaging interventions on these constructs. This article summarises evidence related to perceived threat, efficacy beliefs, and behavioural intentions after CVD screening. We identified 10 studies (2 RCTs and 8 non-randomised studies, n = 2498) through a combination of screening citations from published systematic reviews and meta-analyses and searching electronic databases. Of these, 7 measured behavioural intentions and perceived susceptibility and 3 measured efficacy beliefs. Findings showed largely encouraging effects of screening interventions on bolstering self-efficacy beliefs and strengthening behavioural intentions. Imaging results that suggest the presence of coronary or carotid artery disease also increased perceived susceptibility to CVD. However, the review also identified some gaps in the literature, such as a lack of guiding theoretical frameworks and assessments of critical determinants of health-related behaviours. By carefully considering the key issues highlighted in this review, we can make significant strides towards reducing CVD risks and improving population health.