Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is a herbal remedy which possesses numerous biological attributes including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. Curcumin has been shown to impact a number of signaling pathways including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-KB), reactive oxygen species (ROS), Wingless/Integrated (Wnt), Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and transcription (JAK/STAT). P38 belongs to the MAPKs, is known as a stress-activated MAPK and is involved in diverse biological responses. P38 is activated in various signaling cascades. P38 plays a role in inflammation, cell differentiation, proliferation, motility and survival. This cascade can serve as a therapeutic target in many disorders. Extensive evidence confirms that curcumin impacts the P38 MAPK signaling pathway, through which it exerts anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and apoptotic effects. Hence, curcumin can positively affect inflammatory disorders and cancers, as well as to increase glucose uptake in cells. This review discusses the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of curcumin as effected through p38 MAPK.