Pooled odds ratios from meta-analyses of infants born following assisted reproductive technologies (ART) compared with non-ART singletons show increases in low birth weight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, and birth defects. Although there have been small reductions in recent data, odds associated with these outcomes are still higher for ART singletons. Both ART procedures and underlying infertility contribute to these increased risks. Outcomes appear better for frozen-thawed compared with fresh embryo transfers, but are poorer than for non-ART infants. There is a concerning increase in large-for-gestational-age infants born following frozen-thawed embryo transfer and limited data on the effects of embryo vitrification used instead of slow-freezing techniques. Using large datasets, we now need to investigate risks of individual birth defects and disentangle the inter-related effects of different types of infertility and the multiple aspects of ART. Greater understanding of the causes of adverse ART outcomes and identification of modifiable risk factors may lead to further reductions in the disparities in outcome between ART and non-ART infants. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.