Grain quality and composition in food legumes are influenced by abiotic stresses. This review discusses the influence of abiotic stresses on grain composition and quality in food grains. Grain protein declines under salt stress due to the restricted absorption of nitrate from the soil solution. Grain phosphorus, nitrogen, and potassium contents declined whereas sodium and chloride increased. However, under drought, grain protein increased whereas the oil contents were decreased. For example, among fatty acids, oleic acid content increased; however, linoleic and/or linolenic acids were decreased under drought. Heat stress increased grain oil content whereas grain protein was decreased. Low temperature during late pod-filling reduced starch, protein, soluble sugar, fat, and fiber contents. However, an elevated CO2 level improved omega-3 fatty acid content at the expense of omega-6 fatty acids. Crop management and improvement strategies, next generation sequencing, and gene manipulation can help improve quality of food legumes under abiotic stresses.