Impact of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in Arabidopsis mitochondria

Alison Winger

Research output: ThesisDoctoral Thesis

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Abstract

[Truncated abstract] A range of biotic and abiotic stresses increase levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants due to perturbations of chloroplast and mitochondrial metabolism and the generation of ROS in defence responses. The polyunsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids are susceptible to ROS induced peroxidation yielding various aldehydes, alkenals and hydroxyalkenals including the cytotoxic compound 4-hydroxy- 2-nonenal (HNE). HNE has the potential to cause substantial oxidative damage in cells via its reactivity with sulfhydryl groups of cysteine (Cys) and lipoic acid, the imidazole group of histidine (His) and the ?-amino group of lysine (Lys) protein residues. Analysis of the components of the plant respiratory electron transport chain to HNE revealed a particular susceptibility to inhibition of activity of the alternative oxidase (Aox). Incubation with HNE prevented dimerisation of Aox protein, suggesting that one site of modification was the conserved cysteine residue involved in dimerisation and activation of this enzyme (Cys1). However, a naturally occurring isoform of Aox lacking Cys1 and unable to dimerise, LeAox1b from tomato, was equally sensitive to HNE inhibition, showing that other amino acid residues in Aox also interact with HNE and are likely responsible for inactivation of the enzyme. ... The broader impact of HNE on the whole Arabidopsis mitochondrial proteome was examined by use of various 2-dimensional gel separation techniques coupled with use of HNE-adduct antibodies. 32 proteins involved in a number of mitochondrial functions were found to be susceptible to modification by HNE, including components of the electron transport chain, the TCA cycle, as well as proteins involved amino acid metabolism and stress-responses. Implications of modification of these proteins by HNE are discussed. As HNE is produced in vivo during oxidative stress, the profile of mitochondrial targets of HNE was examined from Arabidopsis cell cultures exposed to various oxidative stress inducers. Menadione and hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress throughout the cell, while antimycin A initiated a mitochondrial targeted stress. A differential profile of mitochondrial proteins was observed to be modified by HNE in the various treatments. These results also showed that induction of stress within a whole cell can impact lipid peroxidation within the mitochondria. Overall, this work showed the presence and production of HNE in plant cells, and that HNE, both exogenous and endogenous, has the ability to modify a specific subset of mitochondrial proteins. In several cases this HNE modification was shown to have functional or structural consequences.
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Publication statusUnpublished - 2006

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