Projects per year
Introduction: Combination chemotherapy is currently standard care for advanced mesothelioma. Checkpoint blockade is a promising new treatment. Areas covered: This review covers clinical use and biomarkers of checkpoint blockade. Medline search used keywords 'mesothelioma' combined with 'checkpoint blockade' OR 'PD-L1MODIFIER LETTER PRIME OR 'PD1MODIFIER LETTER PRIME OR 'anti-CTLA4MODIFIER LETTER PRIME; the search terms AND 'clinical trial' or AND 'biomarker*' were added. Handsearching covered abstracts from relevant meetings from 2016 to 2018 and reference lists. Data informed a narrative review. Expert Opinion: Single agent anti-CTLA4 blockade is inactive in mesothelioma. Single agent PD-1 blockade as second or subsequent treatment gives 20-29% partial responses; no randomized comparisons against placebo or chemotherapy are available. Biomarkers of response have been difficult to identify. There is no consensus as to whether tumor PD-L1 expression predicts outcomes. Combination checkpoint inhibitors (CTLA4 and PD1 blockade) provide a small incremental increase in response rates and progression-free survival. Chemoimmunotherapy is the next frontier.