BackgroundOsteogenesis imperfecta (OI) covers a spectrum of bone fragility disorders. OI is classified into five types; however, the genetic causes of OI might hide in pathogenic variants of 20 different genes. Often clinical OI types mimic each other. This sometimes makes it impossible to identify the OI type clinically, which can be a risk for patients. Up to 90% of OI types I-IV are caused by pathogenic variants in the COL1A1/2 genes. OI type V is caused by the c.-14C>T pathogenic variant in the 5UTR of the IFITM5 gene and is characterized by hyperplastic callus formation and the ossification of interosseous membranes.ResultsIn the current study, we performed IFITM5 5UTR region mutational analysis using Sanger sequencing on 90 patients who were negative for COL1A1/2 pathogenic variants. We also investigated the phenotypes of five patients with genetically confirmed OI type V. The proportion of OI type V patients in our cohort of all OI patients was 1.48%. In one family, there was a history of OI in at least three generations. Phenotype severity differed from mild to extremely severe among patients, but all patients harbored the same typical pathogenic variant. One patient had no visible symptoms of OI type V and was suspected to have had OI type IV previously. We also identified a case of extremely severe hyperplastic callus in a 15-year-old male, who has hearing loss and brittleness of teeth.ConclusionsOI type V is underlined with some unique clinical features; however, not all patients develop them. The phenotype spectrum might be even broader than previously suspected, including typical OI features: teeth brittleness, bluish sclera, hearing loss, long bones deformities, and joint laxity. We suggest that all patients negative for COL1A1/2 pathogenic variants be tested for the presence of an IFITM5 pathogenic variant, even if they are not expressing typical OI type V symptoms. Further studies on the pathological nature and hyperplastic callus formation mechanisms of OI type V are necessary.