Anthracnose is a major disease of lupins in Western Australia (WA). The disease wiped out the WA albus lupin industry in 1996 and since then, anthracnose resistance has been a major focus for WA lupin breeding. In an endeavour to find a source of resistance to anthracnose, all available germplasm in WA was screened against anthracnose in New Zealand over the summer of 1997 and 1998, and resistance was identified in Ethiopian landraces. The resistance was present in many Ethiopian landraces within a close geographical distribution, suggesting a similar genetic basis of resistance. Crosses were made between the resistant landraces and agronomically superior lines. The progeny were tested for anthracnose resistance, yield, seed quality, and other agronomic characters. The most superior line, Andromeda, was released for commercial production in WA. It was developed from an F3-derived single-plant selection of a cross between an anthracnose-resistant landrace P27175 from Ethiopia and a well adapted but highly susceptible WA breeding line 89B10A-14. Andromeda has a significantly higher level of resistance to anthracnose than the previous cv. Kiev Mutant and is recommended in the medium- to low-rainfall area of the northern wheatbelt of WA. Further breeding effort has resulted in significant improvement in the level of resistance within the WA breeding program, and early generation lines are more resistant than advanced lines. The best resistant lines are, however, in a late flowering background and only an incremental improvement has been achieved in combining early flowering with anthracnose resistance, which seems to be a complex process.