Background. Bone disease is common postrenal transplantation resulting in increased fracture rates and morbidity. The cause is multifactorial including hyperparathyroidism, corticosteroids, and possibly calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. The aim of this study was to identify modifiable factors contributing to bone disease in long-term renal transplant (RT) recipients.Methods. Ninety-seven RT recipients were prospectively recruited over a 6-month period from a single center. Bone-related parameters were collected including bone mineral density at lumbar spine and total hip sites, serum and urinary markers of bone-turnover and calcium metabolism, and intact parathyroid hormone levels.Results. The mean time posttransplant of RT recipients was 9.5 years and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 70.3 mL/min. Up to 50% of recipients had biochemical evidence of calcium and vitamin D deficiencies. In the multiple regression models, elevated intact parathyroid hormone levels and calcium deficiency, which are affected by estimated glomerular filtration rate and vitamin D levels, are significantly associated with reduction in bone mineral density measurements.Conclusions. Hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D deficiency are common and are likely to contribute to bone loss postrenal transplantation. Measures aim to correct these problems pre- and posttransplant may improve bone health in RT recipients.