Hyperglycaemic presentations in type 2 diabetes

Emma Griffiths, Sally Singleton, Clare Willix

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) is a syndrome that occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is comparable to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) seen in patients with type 1 diabetes. For a general practitioner working in a rural emergency department, recognition of HHS in a patient presenting with
the triad of severe dehydration, hyperglycaemia and hyperosmolality is important to guide management and plan for disposition.

This article reviews the hyperglycaemic states that can occur in patients with T2DM. The reasons for the biochemical derangements in both HHS and DKA are outlined, with a focus on the recognition and management of HHS.

Knowledge of the pathophysiology that influences HHS helps understand of
its clinical presentation and treatment. HHS has a high mortality rate (5–20%),
and having access to clinical guidelines from a referring hospital is useful to
guide early management strategies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263
Number of pages267
JournalAustralian journal of general practice
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2019


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