Objective: This study evaluated human leucocyte antigen-G gene polymorphisms in patients with periodontitis and healthy controls. Material and methods: The insertion/deletion polymorphism of 14 bp and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C > G on the position +3142 of the 3′ untranslated region of the gene were analyzed in chronic periodontitis (n = 62), aggressive periodontitis (n = 24) patients and healthy individuals (n = 47). Results: Considering the 14 bp insertion/deletion, a significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations in the chronic periodontitis group was observed, but not in the other groups. No significant deviations were observed in patients and control groups considering the +3142 C > G SNP. A significant increased frequency of homozygotes for the 14 bp deletion allele was observed in the chronic periodontitis group as compared to controls. This group also presented a higher frequency of the deletion allele, which was marginally not significant. Concerning this polymorphism, no significant differences were observed between the aggressive periodontitis and healthy control groups. In addition, no significant differences were seen amongst patients and controls when considering the +3142 C > G frequencies. Conclusion: No differences were found amongst patients and controls when considering the +3142 C > G SNP haplotypes frequencies, but a significant increased frequency of homozygotes for the 14 bp deletion allele was observed in chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting a susceptibility role of this polymorphism in the pathogenesis of this condition.