Human Disruption of Coral Reef Trophic Structure

Nicholas A J Graham, Tim R. McClanahan, M. Aaron MacNeil, Shaun K. Wilson, Joshua E. Cinner, Cindy Huchery, Thomas H. Holmes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The distribution of biomass among trophic levels provides a theoretical basis for understanding energy flow and the hierarchical structure of animal communities. In the absence of energy subsidies [1], bottom-heavy trophic pyramids are expected to predominate, based on energy transfer efficiency [2] and empirical evidence from multiple ecosystems [3]. However, the predicted pyramid of biomass distribution among trophic levels may be disrupted through trophic replacement by alternative organisms in the ecosystem, trophic cascades, and humans preferentially impacting specific trophic levels [4–6]. Using empirical data spanning >250 coral reefs, we show how trophic pyramid shape varies given human-mediated gradients along two orders of magnitude in reef fish biomass. Mean trophic level of the assemblage increased modestly with decreasing biomass, contrary to predictions of fishing down the food web [7]. The mean trophic level pattern is explained by trophic replacement of herbivorous fish by sea urchins at low biomass and the accumulation of slow-growing, large-bodied, herbivorous fish at high biomass. Further, at high biomass, particularly where fishers are not selectively removing higher trophic level individuals, a concave trophic distribution emerges. The concave trophic distribution implies a more direct link between lower and upper trophic levels, which may confer greater energy efficiency. This trophic distribution emerges when community biomass exceeds ∼650 kg/ha, suggesting that fisheries for upper trophic level species will only be supported under lightly fished scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)231-236
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Biology
Volume27
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23 Jan 2017

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Coral Reefs
Reefs
Biomass
coral reefs
biomass
Fish
Fishes
Ecosystems
Ecosystem
fish
Animal Structures
Fisheries
Food Chain
Sea Urchins
trophic levels
ecosystems
energy flow
Energy Transfer
energy efficiency
subsidies

Cite this

Graham, N. A. J., McClanahan, T. R., MacNeil, M. A., Wilson, S. K., Cinner, J. E., Huchery, C., & Holmes, T. H. (2017). Human Disruption of Coral Reef Trophic Structure. Current Biology, 27(2), 231-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.062
Graham, Nicholas A J ; McClanahan, Tim R. ; MacNeil, M. Aaron ; Wilson, Shaun K. ; Cinner, Joshua E. ; Huchery, Cindy ; Holmes, Thomas H. / Human Disruption of Coral Reef Trophic Structure. In: Current Biology. 2017 ; Vol. 27, No. 2. pp. 231-236.
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Graham, NAJ, McClanahan, TR, MacNeil, MA, Wilson, SK, Cinner, JE, Huchery, C & Holmes, TH 2017, 'Human Disruption of Coral Reef Trophic Structure' Current Biology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 231-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.062

Human Disruption of Coral Reef Trophic Structure. / Graham, Nicholas A J; McClanahan, Tim R.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Wilson, Shaun K.; Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; Holmes, Thomas H.

In: Current Biology, Vol. 27, No. 2, 23.01.2017, p. 231-236.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - MacNeil, M. Aaron

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AU - Holmes, Thomas H.

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Graham NAJ, McClanahan TR, MacNeil MA, Wilson SK, Cinner JE, Huchery C et al. Human Disruption of Coral Reef Trophic Structure. Current Biology. 2017 Jan 23;27(2):231-236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2016.10.062