Histopathological features of asymmetric lacrimal gland enlargement in patients with thyroid eye disease

Pav Gounder, Huw Oliphant, Valerie Juniat, Michael Koenig, Dinesh Selva, Saul N. Rajak

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Purpose: Lacrimal gland enlargement can be a feature of thyroid eye disease (TED). Unilateral or asymmetric lacrimal gland enlargement is poorly described and may impede diagnosis. We present the histological and clinical findings of four patients with asymmetric lacrimal gland enlargement. Methods: A retrospective case note review was performed for patients over two tertiary orbital clinics (Royal Adelaide Hospital, South Australia and the Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, United Kingdom) presenting with an asymmetrical lacrimal gland enlargement with a background of TED that underwent biopsy to exclude alternate diagnoses. Baseline data was collected for each patient and histopathological images and reports were reviewed. Results: All four patients were hyperthyroid at time of lacrimal gland biopsy. Biopsy demonstrated nonspecific, lymphoid aggregates, typically of B cell type, with no diagnostic findings to support lymphocyte clonality or IgG4-related disease. One biopsy specimen demonstrated evidence of some fibrosis. Conclusion: Asymmetrical lacrimal gland enlargement can occur as part of the TED spectrum but may require biopsy to exclude alternate pathology. Histology demonstrates a non-specific lymphocytic infiltrate.

Original languageEnglish
Article number32
JournalThyroid Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

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