Higher Habitual Dietary Intakes of Flavanols and Anthocyanins Differentially Associate with Lower Incidence of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes—A Follow-Up Analysis

Benjamin H. Parmenter, Pratik Pokharel, Frederik Dalgaard, Kevin Murray, Aedín Cassidy, Catherine P. Bondonno, Joshua R. Lewis, Cecilie Kyrø, Anne Tjønneland, Kim Overvad, Jonathan M. Hodgson, Nicola P. Bondonno

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Background: We previously reported that habitual consumption of dietary flavanol oligomers + polymers and anthocyanins is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. However, no studies have investigated their relationship with ischemic stroke subtypes. Objectives: In this follow-up analysis, we aimed to examine the association of flavanol oligomers + polymers and anthocyanin intake with ischemic stroke subtypes, including the following: 1) large-artery atherosclerosis, 2) cardioembolism, 3) small-vessel occlusion, 4) other determined etiology, and 5) undetermined etiology. Methods: Participants (n = 55,094) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study were followed up for <16 y for first-time ischemic stroke events, which were classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. Intakes of flavanol oligomers + polymers and anthocyanins were calculated from food frequency questionnaires using the Phenol-Explorer database, and their relationships with ischemic stroke subtypes were investigated using restricted cubic splines within Cox proportional hazards models. After multivariable adjustment, higher habitual intakes (quintile 5 compared with quintile 1) of flavanol oligomers + polymers and anthocyanins were associated with a lower risk of specific ischemic stroke subtypes, including large-artery atherosclerosis [flavanol oligomers + polymers, hazard ratio {HR} (95% confidence interval {CI}): 0.64 (0.47, 0.87)], cardioembolism [anthocyanins, HR (95% CI): 0.45 (0.25, 0.82)], and small-vessel occlusion [flavanol oligomers + polymers, HR (95% CI): 0.65 (0.54, 0.80); anthocyanins, HR (95% CI): 0.79 (0.64, 0.97)], but not stroke of other determined or undetermined etiology. Conclusions: Higher habitual intakes of flavanols and anthocyanins are differentially associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke from atherosclerosis and/or cardioembolism but not with other subtypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3280-3286
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2023

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