High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are present in benign prostate tissues before development of HPV associated prostate cancer.

Wendy K. Glenn, Christopher C. Ngan, TG Amos, RJ Edwards, J Swift, L Lutze-Mann, F Shang, NJ Whitaker, JS Lawson

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31 Citations (Web of Science)

Abstract

Background: Although high risk HPVs are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer it is not known if they have a causal role. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential role of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in prostate cancer. The aims are (i) to investigate the presence and confirm the identity of high risk HPVs in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer in the same patients, and (ii) to determine if HPVs are biologically active.

Methods: We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify HPVs in specimens from 52 Australian men with benign prostate biopsies who 1 to 10 years later developed prostate cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to assess the expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins, cytokeratin and prostate specific antigen (PSA). We used RNASeq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to identify possible HPV RNA sequences in prostate cancer.

Results: HPV screening using standard PCR was conducted on 28 of the 52 sets of benign and later prostate cancers. HPV L1 genes were identified in 13 (46%) benign and 8 (29%) of 28 later prostate cancers in the same patients. HPV E7 genes were identified in 23 (82%) benign and 19 (68%) of 28 subsequent prostate cancers in the same patients. The same HPV types were present in both the benign and subsequent prostate cancers in 9 sets of specimens. HPV type 16 was identified in 15% of benign and 3% of prostate cancers. HPV type 18 was identified in 26% of benign and 16% of prostate cancers. Small numbers of HPV types 45, 47, 76 and 115 were also identified. High confidence RNA-Seq evidence for high risk HPV types 16 and 18 was identified in 12 (2%) of the 502 TCGA prostate cancer transcriptomes. High risk HPV E7 oncoprotein was positively expressed in 23 (82%) of 28 benign prostate specimens but only in 8 (29%) of 28 of the later prostate cancer specimens. This difference is statistically significant (p = 0.001). Prostate specific antigen (PSA) was more highly expressed in 26 (50%) of 52 prostate cancer specimens as compared to prior benign prostate specimens in the same patients.

Conclusions: High risk HPVs are present in benign prostate tissues prior to the development of HPV positive prostate cancer. There is a significantly higher expression of HPV E7 oncoproteins in benign prostate tissues as compared to late prostate cancer that subsequently developed in the same patients. This observation suggests that HPV oncogenic activity is an early phenomenon in a majority of prostate oncogenesis. TCGA RNA-Seq data suggests that HPV is biologically active in some prostate tumour samples.
Original languageEnglish
Article number46
JournalInfectious Agents and Cancer
Volume12
Issue number46
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2017
Externally publishedYes

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