The mating system, patterns of pollen mediated gene flow and levels of genetic contamination were investigated in a planted stand of Acacia saligna subsp. saligna via paternity analysis using microsatellite markers. High levels of outcrossing were detected within the stand (t (m)=0.98), and the average pollen dispersal distance was 37 m with the majority of progeny sired by paternal trees within a 50-m neighbourhood of the maternal tree. Genetic contamination from the natural background population of A. saligna subsp. lindleyi was detected in 14% of the progeny of A. saligna subsp. saligna and varied among maternal trees. Long distance inter-subspecific pollen dispersal was detected for distances of over 1,500 m. The results provide information for use in the breeding and domestication programme aimed at developing A. saligna as an agroforestry crop for the low rainfall areas of southern Australia.