Strong cross-Kerr nonlinearities have been long sought after for quantum information applications. Recent work has shown that they are intrinsically unreliable in traveling-wave configurations: cavity configurations avoid this, but require knowledge of both the nonlinearity and the loss. Here we present a detailed systematic study of cross-phase modulation and absorption in an Rb vapor confined within a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. Using a two-photon transition, we observe phase modulations of up to π rad with a signal power of 25 μW, corresponding to a nonlinear Kerr coefficient, n2, of 0.8×10-6 cm2/W, or 1.3×10-6 rad per photon. © 2013 American Physical Society.